Diabetes has been linked with bursitis in one study; however, the extent to which the patient was able to control the diabetes was not documented. Medial meniscus injury presents with medial joint line tenderness, knee locking, and/or catching. The McMurray test is positive with valgus stress and external tibial rotation. In older patients, a degenerative medial meniscus may present with insidious onset of medial knee pain. Discoid medial meniscus synovial plica syndrome (medial plica) can result in point tenderness and palpable clicking over the medial femoral condyle. The prepatellar bursa overlies the anterior portion of the patella and can become involved with kneeling and leaning forward (housemaid's knee). When the foot flattens excessively it can trigger an inward rotation in the lower leg bone, the tibia, causing the knees to point toward each other. Of course the upper leg bone will likely follow along, causing increased or altered movement at the hip. So, ultimately excessive or increased movement of the foot into a flattened position can cause pain all the way up the leg to the hip and lower back. One of these three basic foot structures are inherited at the time of birth. There are varying degrees within each individual foot type; however, the important thing to recognize is ALL three of these foot structures are normal Rheumatoid factor is present in 80% of patients but may be elevated in many other conditions. Anti-nuclear antibodies are indicators of connective tissue disease but may be present in rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies may be more sensitive and specific than rheumatoid factor. Monitoring of drug toxicity involves regular blood investigations such as Full Blood Count, liver function tests, renal function, ESR, CRP and urinalysis. If the diagnosis is in question, investigation for other causes of a polyarthritis is mandatory including uric acid level, thyroid function tests, creatine kinase, vasculitis and infection screens. Wear and Tear. PP condition can also be caused by wear and tear, as the person grows older it is not unlikely that his daily activity for years will take its toll and cause his arch to collapse. Weakening and inflammation may damage the tendon and eventually causing the condition to finally happen. Surgery. Another popular solution to PP is surgery. The different surgeries for PP includes repairing that torn tendon, fusing the ankle or foot together by manipulating the bones, cut and reshape the bone in order to connect and align correctly and replace the tendon through the help of another tendon. A bunion is a condition affecting the joint at the base of the big toe. Improperly fitting shoes, caused by flat feet, may place pressure on the joint. This pressure causes the joint to become larger and push the big toe toward the other toes. This causes pain in the joint. Arthritis Flatfeet may occur after a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in the foot or ankle. The arthritis causes flatfoot for almost half of people suffering from the condition, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). This form of arthritis causes inflammation and pain in the lining of joints as well as joint damage and bone erosion. Tendinitis Symptoms may vary and generally depend on the severity of the condition. If your feet are flat, you may experience swelling and pain on the inside of your ankle, foot pain, lower leg pain and back pain. Another indicator that you have flat feet will be uneven wearing of your shoes, plus you will be able to see the outright appearance of a flat foot , which looks significantly different from a foot with an arch. Fitted insoles or orthotics (custom-designed for each foot) relieve pressure from the arch and reduce pain. A good custom orthotic is an extremely valuable and simple treatment that will correct most patients’ flat feet. Reflexology is a complementary modality that will work well in conjunction with just about any medical treatment. It’s been found successful in relieving the pain that accompanies many pathologies and treatments. Flat feet are just one of many. In addition, don’t forget that with reflexology, the magic is in the details. For structural issues, I pay attention to the reflexes to all the spinal reflexes in addition to the reflexes to the legs, hips and knees, arms and shoulders. Plantar fasciitis is one of the more frustrating and frequently seen conditions of the foot and makes up approximately 25% of the injuries seen in runners.